What is a bank?
In small-town America people used to think of the bank as the most impressive and fortified-appearing building in town, leaving aside the local courthouse. The bank building was supposed to ooze confidence. This was very important given that the monetary system is in essence a confidence game. In more recent years, as bank ATMs have become ubiquitous, the average quality of banking facilities has deteriorated sharply. But banks still like to maintain the facade they are doing you a favor in accepting your money. However, the image has gotten a little scrambled.
When I opened a bank account in Prague, Czechoslovakia (it hadn't yet split into two countries) in 1992, I encountered a problem. Czech banks still did all their transactions processing by hand--with pen and paper. And in the previous two years, the number of "current accounts" (checking accounts) had skyrocketed from 10,000 to 2 million. So checks took six weeks to clear. And the banks with the impressive buildings around Wenceslas Square were not accepting new accounts below three million koruna or so. Finding a bank which would accept a new account of reasonable size turned into an all day search by myself and two other people: a local lawyer and a local accountant.
You might think you could just call around on the phone. But that assumes that someone answers the phone. And if someone answers the phone, that they know or can find the answer. And that if they give an answer, the answer is correct. All these assumptions turned out to be terribly naive. But eventually we got word of a new branch which had just opened on the other side of town, which had no money, and which was therefore accepting deposits of any size. With elan we raced across Prague before miracle melted into mirage. Eventually we located an ugly gray building, designed in late socialist style, and to all appearances since gnawed upon by giant concrete-eating rats. The first floor was in fact under construction or renovation--there were no doors, windows, or walls. We wound our way through the machinery and piles of sand and gravel until we arrived at the center of the building.
There was an elevator. The elevator ran continuously. It was a set of open boxes. When the floor of a box rose approximately to ground level, you leaped on board, congratulating yourself on not getting wedged. And only belatedly realized you should have been counting floors, because there were no number designations. Two of us leaped out at the fifth floor, and we waited for the boxes to come around again, and our colleague managed to join us on his way down.
The was an 8 1/2 by 11 sheet of typing paper attached to the wall with masking tape in front of the elevator, with the ball-point notation "bank" and an arrow pointing off to the right. We wandered in the direction of the arrow until we eventually came to an office in the corner of the building. The man in the office looked up at us in puzzlement. "We are looking for the bank," my lawyer says in Czech. The man points catty- corner across the building. The bank is in the exact opposite corner. We went there and opened an unmarked door with frosted glass.
And there was the bank: three guys behind an uncovered picnic-type table, waiting on two customers. Great luck! The third bank officer was free! But even in this context the confidence factor was at work. There was one more bank employee: a young woman behind a bullet-proof glass with a PC! High tech had come to Prague. The man behind the picnic table gave me large laminated tokens that showed my account number and my initial deposit. But for the latter token, I first had to get in line and wait my turn to give koruna to the girl with the computer behind the bullet-proof glass. While standing in line, I commented to someone that it reminded me of a scene in Philadelphia, where a bank had opened up a branch in a house trailer in a vacant lot near the stock exchange.
"Philadelphia? I'm from Philadelphia." This from a stranger in line behind me. It turned out that he had sold the bank their software system-- the PC banking system being used by the girl behind the bullet-proof glass.
What was the bank? Certainly not the building. Not the giant concrete-eating rats. Not even the people--like the three guys behind the picnic table. No, as a first approximation, the bank was the set of accounts recorded on the PC hard drive. The one manipulated by the girl behind the bullet-proof glass. The bullet-proof glass wasn't the bank either.
In essence, a bank is simply a balance sheet. On the liabilities side of the balance sheet are the deposits the bank owes to its customers. On the asset side of the balance sheet are the bank's securities and loans--the things it owns. When a customer writes a check to another customer, the numbers change. One liability account is debited, and another is credited.
That's the way digital cash credit-debit systems work. In Part 1, we looked at Internet Payment systems which were credit-card like, with some security features added. Here in Part 2, we looked at Internet Payment systems that are a set of accounting books, which are altered by a series of debits and credits.
Digital Cash Debit-Credit SystemsIn these systems, customers open an account in one of a specialized network of payment servers. They then authorize charges against their account. For example, in NetCheque, customers can digitally sign a payment check against their account. It is digitally countersigned by another account holder receiving the check. By definition, this represents a digital payment message bearing a digital signature which functions as a medium of exchange or store of value, so these checks are bona fide digital cash. The accounting servers handle the formalized payment protocols which allow for Internet payments in a simple and efficient manner. The payment server itself maintains a line to the ordinary banking system.
There is no reason the payment server cannot handle anonymous accounts--in which case the payment server becomes the interface between the anonymous and non-anonymous banking system. If a customer must always maintain a net positive balance with the payment server, it is called a "debit" system, while if a customer is allowed net negative balances which are billed later, it is called a "credit" system.
Calling the examples covered here in Part 2 "credit-debit" systems does not mean they are not digital cash systems. By our definition, any payment system using digitally signed instruments as a medium of exchange or store of value qualifies as digital cash. Encrypted credit card numbers are not digital cash, but the NetCheque, NetBill, and CyberCoin systems covered here in Part 2 are.
What these systems have in common is a centralized accounting server which transfers balances between two accounts. There are no separate, identifiable digital tokens that can be stored on a hard drive or in the memory of a smart card, and subsequently transferred to others in payment without going through the centralized server. That is, one can send a digitally signed payment message to the accounting server which results in a balance transfer, but one doesn't receive from the server a digital token or piece of digital cash--which is a generalized liability carrying the server's signature, and promising to pay to the bearer on demand. Digital cash systems with transferable bearer tokens are deferred to Part 3 for discussion.
NetCheque (USC)NetCheque is a product of the Information Sciences Institute (ISI) of the University of Southern California (USC), under a team lead by Clifford Neuman. A NetCheque customer must establish an account on one of a system of "accounting servers". Generally, this involves transferring a monetary balance from an ordinary banking account to the specialized server. Once such an account is established, a customer may make low- valued payments to other accounting server customers using the NetCheque protocol.
Payments in the system take the form of "electronic checks". To make a payment, a customer fills out a check identifying the payer, the payer's financial institution, the payer's account identifier, the name of the payee, and the amount of the check. The check is digitally signed by the payer and sent to the payee. The payee must digitally endorse (i.e., also digitally sign) the check, and the server then removes the amount of the check from the payer and credits it to the account of the payee.
All customers maintain accounts with an accounting server, while the accounting server maintains its own account with an outside bank. The arrangement of the NetCheque system is based on the Kerberos client-server authentication framework that was created by MIT as a method of controlling computer access in distributed networks.
In the Kerberos system, a client registers with a centralized key server called Kerberos. Then, in order to get access to computer servers generally, the client must first request a Kerberos ticket-granting ticket (TGTicket), which allows it to use a ticket-granting server (TGServer). The TGTicket is good for a limited time. Then whenever the client wants to use a particular server, it first utilizes its TGTicket in a request to the TGServer. The TGServer checks the authenticity of the TGTicket. If the latter is valid, the TGServer then issues the client a server ticket (STicket). Afterward, the client sends the STicket to the server in which it is interested in using. If everything is in order, the server then allows the client to use its services.
In short, Kerberos gives the client a license to use the TGServer, and then the TGServer gives the client a license to use a particular server computer. The notable feature of Kerberos is its exclusive use of conventional symmetric key cryptography (DES). NetCheque claims this is an advantage in that the "requirement for handling micropayments requires high performance which is obtained through the use of conventional, instead of public-key cryptography."
Writing a check: NetCheque's electronic checks are a type of Kerberos ticket. When a check is written, the payer's software identifies the account on which the check is drawn, and the rest of the check information (listed above) is filled in. As part of this procedure, the check-writer also obtains a Kerberos ticket which will be used to authenticate the check-writer to the accounting server. (The accounting server plays somewhat the same role as the TGServer in the Kerberos system.) The check is base 64 encoded and sent to the payee via email or through an on-line service.
Depositing a check: The payee's software reads the information on the check, and obtains its own Kerberos ticket identifying the payee to the payer's accounting server. The payee adds an endorsement to the check for deposit to the payee's account. The payee's accounting server then credits the payee's account with the amount of the check. If both payer and payee use the same accounting server, the check is immediately cleared by reducing the payer's balance. If the payer and payee use different accounting servers, there is a hold placed on the deposited funds in the payee's account until the payer's account has been correspondingly reduced.
Many of the details of NetCheque are incorporated into the associated ISI system NetCash, which we will discuss in more detail in the next section.
The NetCheque software has been integrated with an existing software system called Prospero, also created by Neuman, which provides for searching and retrieval of information on the Internet. Prospero, first released in 1990, is presently used by America Online as part of their gateway for access to Internet information services. Prospero has been licensed by a company called CyberSAFE, which has worked with the Kerberos system for some time.
Work on the NetCheque and NetCash systems was funded by the U.S. Defense Department's Advanced Research Projects Agency through its computer systems technology office.
NetBill (Carnegie-Mellon and Mellon Bank)NetBill is designed for small payments ("micropayments"), especially for information delivered over the Internet, such as payment of a few cents for access to a Web page or an electronically archived research journal. The system is being developed by Carnegie Mellon University and Mellon Bank Corp. in Pittsburgh, PA.
Such a system requires low service costs, a guarantee that customers receive the information they request, and that merchants receive payment for goods delivered. (NetBill itself expects to charge from 7 to 25 percent of the price of the purchased information for use of its payment mechanism.)
NetBill uses an account server, which maintains accounts for both customers and merchants, linked to conventional financial institutions. The NetBill server acts as an aggregator to combine many small transactions into larger conventional-sized transactions.
The payment structure is designed for the easy construction of pseudonyms to allow buyers of information to protect their identities.
The basic steps in the protocol are the following.
In step 1, the customer and merchant authenticate each other using public-key certificates. They establish a symmetric session key to encrypt subsequent messages. The merchant's price quote (step 2) will be based on the customer's identity (to allow for price discrimination). If the customer accepts the quote (step 3), the merchant sends the information to the customer in an encrypted form while withholding the encryption key (step 4). The customer makes up an electronic payment order which describes the transaction and includes a cryptographic checksum of the information received. The payment order is encrypted with the private key of the customer and sent to the merchant (step 5). The merchant verifies the message contents (using the customer's public key), appends the key needed to decrypt the information, endorses the order with the merchant's digital signature, and sends it to the NetBill server. The NetBill server checks the customer's account balance, debits this balance and credits the merchant's balance, and sends a digitally signed receipt--which includes the key needed to decrypt the information--back to the merchant (step 7). The merchant forwards the receipt to the customer (step 8), who now decrypts the purchased information.
There is little personal anonymity in this process. True, the NetBill server does not know anything about the information the customer purchased from the merchant. It might be pages from the Bible written in Urdu, or a cryptography program from a U.S. citizen. This info is kept confidential. However, the NetBill server keeps a transaction record of purchases made from different merchants, and this potentially allows all information requests to be linked. Neither is there any financial anonymity involved when the customer's NetBill account is first funded. But the latter is true of almost all digital cash systems.
CyberCoinAs we saw in Part 1, CyberCash is itself not a digital cash system, but rather a method for making secured credit card payments over the Internet. Then in October 1996 CyberCash introduced CyberCoin, which is a digital cash book entry system using an accounting server and RSA encryption. Encryption includes 56-bit DES keys, and 768 to 1024 public/private key pairs.
In the CyberCoin system, CyberCash itself acts as the accounting server using an escrow account at its bank in Virginia. Within the escrow account, CyberCash maintains proxy (CyberCoin) accounts for customers and merchants. CyberCoin is conceived of as a micropayment system, with purchases in the range of 25 cents to $100.
Customers have "Wallets" and merchants have "Cash Registers". CyberCash itself processes payments between the CyberCoin proxy accounts of customers and merchants. Customers are not charged fees for this service. But as with any traveler's check system, CyberCash's bank earns interest on dollar amounts deposited in Wallets and not yet used.
Merchants are charged fees for services. The bank charges a merchant a per-transaction fee to use CyberCoin (just as CyberCash charges the bank a fee for providing technology and processing services.) A merchant also pays to transfer funds out of its CyberCoin proxy account to a regular bank account. (The merchant does this by requesting an Automated Clearing House transfer.) This gives merchants an economic incentive to accumulate funds in their Cash Register before such transfers are made.
Debit-credit systems represent the essence of what digital banking is all about. In principle, one doesn't have to go any further than debit-credit systems in order to have complete privacy and anonymity (although the systems here don't provide that). However, it will also be interesting to look at systems that are a little more cash-like. One can stuff cash in ones pocket, and later hand some of it to another person. Digital token systems are similar: one can stuff digital cash into ones pocket computer, and later hand some of it to someone else's computer or storage device.
We will look at digital token systems in Part 3.
Heading back to the office with the lawyer and the accountant, having successfully deposited koruna in a Prague banking account, the lawyer said to me: "I've worked in Austria and I've worked in Germany, and I know there is a better way. Sometimes I think to myself, `I would like to start some business here in Czechosolvakia.' But then I think of the banks. The banking system here is impossible."
If I had known then what I know now, I would have answered: "Let me tell you about the Internet."